Friday, May 3, 2013

Attention Seeking Behavior In Adults

Personality disorder refers to a class of personality types and enduring behaviors associated with significant distress or disability, which appear to deviate from social expectations particularly in relating to other humans.
In personality disorders an attention seeker is part of cluster b also known as the dramatic. They are broken down into Antisocial • Borderline • Histrionic • Narcissistic.

Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is described by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, as an Axis II personality disorder characterized by "... a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood." They have an "impoverished moral sense or conscience" and may have a "history of crime, legal problems, impulsive and aggressive behavior."
Antisocial personality disorder is said to be genetically based but typically has environmental factors, such as family relations, that trigger its onset. Traumatic events can lead to a disruption of the standard development of the central nervous system, which can generate a release of hormones that can change normal patterns of development. One of the neurotransmitters that have been discussed in individuals with ASPD is serotonin.

While it has been shown that lower levels of serotonin may be associated with ASPD, there has also been evidence that decreased serotonin function is highly correlated with impulsiveness and aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Impulsivity is not only linked with irregularities in 5HT metabolism but may be the most essential psychopathological aspect linked with such dysfunction. In a study looking at the relationship between the combined effects of central serotonin activity and acute testosterone levels on human aggression, researchers found that aggression was significantly higher in subjects with a combination of high testosterone and high cortisol responses, which correlated to decreased serotonin levels.

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a personality disorder characterized by unusual variability and depth of moods. These moods may secondarily affect cognition and interpersonal relationships. Other symptoms of BPD include impulsive behavior, intense and unstable interpersonal relationships, unstable self-image, feelings of abandonment and an unstable sense of self.
People with BPD often engage in idealization and devaluation of themselves and of others, alternating between high positive regard and heavy disappointment or dislike. Self-harm and suicidal behaviors are common and may require inpatient psychiatric care.
Evidence suggests that BPD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are closely related. However, research also suggests diverse possible causes of BPD, including a history of childhood trauma, brain abnormalities, genetic predisposition, neurobiological factors, and environmental factors.
The hippocampus is smaller in people with BPD. This trait is shared by individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. However, only in BPD are both the hippocampus and the amygdala smaller. The amygdala is smaller and more active in people with BPD. Decreased amygdala volume has also been found in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder. One study has found unusually strong activity in the left amygdala’s of people with BPD when they experience and view displays of negative emotions.

There is a strong correlation between child abuse, especially child sexual abuse, and development of BPD. Many individuals with BPD report a history of abuse and neglect as young children.

Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a personality disorder characterized by a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention-seeking, including an excessive need for approval and inappropriately seductive behavior, usually beginning in early adulthood. These individuals are lively, dramatic, vivacious, enthusiastic, and flirtatious. HPD affects four times as many women as men.

Sometimes adults seek attention because of jealousy. When someone finds himself threatened by another person who he feels takes all the attention he is supposed to get he may respond with attention seeking behavior.

Lack of self-worth can be another cause for attention seeking behavior. Some people think that they are overlooked and so they think that the only solution to restore their balance is to bring back the lost attention. The attention they will get in this case will provide them with reassurance and will help them think that they are worthy.
Arrogant & overconfident people may seek attention because they have the feeling that they deserve to be in the center of attention. Because they aren’t mature enough they still think with their inner child’s mentality which makes them believe that they are the center of the world. Usually the child thinks that he is the center of the universe around which all other objects revolve. If the child's way of thinking didn't mature he will grow up thinking that he is the center of the world and so he will be an attention seeking adult.

Narcissists are also attention seekers. They consider this attention a good source of narcissistic supply and so they strive to get it. If you ignored a narcissist he will definitely hate you especially if he was hoping to get some attention from you.

Attention Seekers are all types of people. To the girl who has to be dressed in tight clothes or skimpy clothes, to the man who streaks, but they are also the girl that takes everything as an insult to herself or a person who is constantly a victim. Attention Seekers come in many shapes and sizes but identifying why they need the attention tells us which personality disorder they have.

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